The Supreme Court Database codes most decisions as either conservative or liberal (see definitions). Using that information and justices’ votes, we computed an ideological direction for each justice’s votes on First Amendment cases:
|Case direction||If justice votes with majority||If justice votes in dissent
Then we averaged all votes by that justice over a given year and compared the averages over time. These results may be compared to Martin-Quinn scores, which examine justices’ voting records on all cases.